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Glossary

Amenorrhea:

Not having a menstrual cycle.

Anovulation:

Lack of eggs. This does not have to be combined with amenorrhea.

Azoospermia:

No sperm in ejaculation.

Corpus luteum:

A special gland on the surface of the ovary in the ovulation. This produces progesterone hormone in the second half of the menstrual cycle. This prepares the surface of the uterus for implantation of the fertilized eggs.

Ectopic Pregnancy:

Occurrence of pregnancy with the fertilized egg settled in a place outside the uterine cavity (fallopian tubes, ovaries, abdominal cavity).

Embryo Transfer:

Transfer of the embryo, obtained as a result of in vitro fertilization, into the uterus.

Embryo:

The early period of fetal development. This period is the part from fertilization of the egg by the sperm to the 8th week of the pregnancy.

Endocrine System:

The gland system which includes ovarian, testicular, adrenal gland, thyroid, pituitary, thymus systems.

Endometrium:

A mucous membrane that covers the inner side of the uterus.

Epididymis:

A system extending curved to the front and the back of the testicular system. It contains a very tortuous channel with a length of 4 to 6 meters. Sperm are stored, fed and mature for a few months in this channel.

Fallopian Tubes:

A couple of narrow pipes that carry the egg from the ovary to the uterus.

Fertilization:

Fertilization. Penetration of the egg by the sperm for embryo formation and combination of the genetic material.

Fetus:

Name given to the baby for a period from the 9th week of the pregnancy until delivery.

Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH):

This hormone is produced and released by the pituitary gland. It allows follicle maturation by stimulating the ovaries for ovulation.

Follicle:

A fluid-filled sac carrying the eggs in the ovary. It feeds the egg and releases during ovulation after hatching.

Gamete:

Male and female reproductive cells. These are sperms and eggs.

Gonadotropin:

Hormones with the capacity to stimulate the male and female reproductive systems to allow production sperms by the testicles and eggs by the ovaries.

Hysteroscopy:

Entering and monitoring the the inside of the uterus with the help of an optical instrument.

Hormone:

Chemicals agents released by the endocrine gland, circulating in the blood and with a wide influence in various parts of the body.

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG):

A hormone that is released by the placenta during pregnancy. This maintains pregnancy by extending the life of the corpus luteum and progesterone production. In addition, it makes the pregnancy test positive.

Implantation:

Bedding of the fertilized egg within the uterus in the endometrium.

In Vitro Fertilization - Embryo Transfer:

The procedure of bringing the egg and sperm together in a lab environment outside the human body and ensuring fertilization and then, transfer of the embryos fertilized and developed into the uterus.

Infertility:

Lack of occurrence or abortion of pregnancy after of one-year regular sexual intercourse period of couples without protection.

Insemination:

A method performed to ensure pregnancy by transferring the sperms into the uterus.

Conception:

Formation of a new life as a result of fertilization of the eggs by the sperm.

Cryo (preservation):

A method used for embryo preservation after freezing.

Laparoscopy:

Monitoring the ovaries and fallopian tubes by entering through a small hole in the lower abdomen with the help of an optical instrument.

Luteinizing Hormone:

This is synthesized by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Increase in LH release allows release of the egg in the middle of the menstrual cycle.

Morphology:

Determination of sperm shape, size.

Motility:

Ratio of the number of motile sperm to the total sperm number.

Oligospermia:

Lower number of sperms in ejaculation than normal.

Oocyte retrieval:

Retrieval of eggs from the ovarian follicles. The follicle is entered with a needle, the liquid and eggs here are absorbed by the needle and the eggs are placed in containers with a culture medium.

Oocyte:

Egg

Over = Ovary (Ovarian):

Female reproductive organs. The number of ovaries is two. These allow formation of the estrogen and progesterone hormone and development of the eggs.

Ovarian Failure:

Irresponsiveness of the ovarium to stimulation of gonadotropic hormones. Lack of follicular tissue due to a genetic or post-menopausal status.

Ovulation:

Ovulation is release of an egg matured on the surface of the ovaries.

Estradiol:

Released from the ovary during follicular development. The amount of estradiol is continually while monitoring follicle development in the ovulation induction.

Estrogen:

Mainly produced in the ovaries. Production lasts from the start of puberty until menopause production. Also responsible for the development of a secondary sex character.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCO):

There are multiple cysts in the ovaries. There is an imbalance in the amount of LH and FSH.

Polispermi:

Fertilization of an egg by more than one sperm cells.

Progesterone:

A hormone released by the corpus luteum that maintain pregnancy after ovulation. Produced by the placenta during pregnancy.

Semen Analysis (spermiogram):

Determination of count per milliliter, shape and motility of fresh sperm under microscope.

Semen:

The name given to sperm and fluid that form ejaculation during orgasm.

Cervix:

Cervix. This area in the lower uterus protrude into the vagina and expands for transition of the baby during delivery.

Sperm Morphology:

Examination of shape of the sperm cells.

Sperm Motility:

Examination of the ability of the sperm to move.

Sperm washing:

The technique for separation of the sperm from the semen fluid.

Sperm:

Male reproductive cell.

Testis:

Male reproductive organs and these are two. These are in a sac and produce testosterone, the male reproductive hormone, and sperm, the male reproductive cell.

Testosterone:

Male reproductive hormone.

Ultrasound:

Device that allows us to see the internal reproductive organs and the resulting fetus.

Uterus:

The uterus is a reproductive organ with a muscular structure, and protects the embryo to develop and allows feeding.

Vagina:

Vagina is a track that connects the cervix and uterus to the external reproductive organs.

Varicocele:

Expansion of testicular vein. Sometimes a cause of male infertility.

Viability:

Determination whether the sperm is alive.

Viscosity:

Density.

Zygote:

State of the embryo in early development.

Zona pellusida:

Membrane covering the outside of the egg, the sperm enters in by penetrating this membrane and fertilizes the egg. It is necessary for the embryo to be peeled of this membrane so that the embryo can place in the uterus.

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