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Glossary

Amenorrhea:

Absence of menstruation.

Azoospermia: 

Absence of sperms in semen

Cervix:

Lower part of the uterus acting as the gateway. This lower part of the uterus, protruding into the vagina, dilates during birth.Corpus luteum:

Corpus luteum is a special gland over the ovaries occurring during ovulation. Corpus luteum produces the progesterone hormone during the second half of the menstrual cycle. Thus, the uterine lining will be prepared for the implantation of fertilized egg cells.

Conception:

It is the process of fertilization of the egg cell from the female by a sperm from the male causing to start a new life to form.

Cryopreservation:

It is the method applied for the freezing and the storage of the embryo.

Ectopic Pregnancy:

Pregnancy with the implantation of the fertilized egg outside the uterine cavity (in fallopian tubes, over the ovaries, in the abdominal cavity).

Embryo Transfer:

Embryo transfer is placing the embryo obtained via in vitro fertilization into the female uterus.

Embryo:

It is the early period of the developing fetus. It is the phase starting from the fertilization of the egg by the sperm until the 8 weeks of gestation.

Endocrine System: 

It is the system of glands that includes ovaries, testicles, adrenal glands, the thyroid and the pituitary glands, and the thymus.

Endometrium:

It is a mucous membrane lining inside the uterus.

Epididymis: 

It is a system that extends along the surfaces in the front and back of the testicular system in men. It is a 4 to 6 meter long and highly convoluted duct. In this canal, sperms are stored and nurtured for maturation for a few months.

Estradiol: 

It is a substance released from ovaries during the development of follicles. In the ovulation induction procedure, estradiol levels are regularly monitored along with the monitoring of the development of the follicle.

Estrogen:

Estrogen is mainly produced in the ovaries. Its production starts with the onset of puberty and lasts until menopause. Estrogen is responsible for the development of sex characteristics.

Fallopian Tubes:

They are a pair of narrow canals that transport eggs from the ovaries to the uterus.

Fertilization: 

Fertilization. It is the joining of the male and female sexual cells to produce the embryo.

Fetus:

It is the term that describes the intrauterine baby from 9 weeks of gestation until delivery.

Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH): 

This hormone is synthesized and released from the pituitary gland. It stimulates the ovaries for follicle maturation so that ovulation occurs.

Follicle: 

It is a fluid-filled sac that contains the egg cell in the ovary. It nourishes the egg and releases it via rupturing during ovulation.

Gamete:

Male and female reproductive cells. They are the sperm and the egg cell (oocyte), respectively.

Gonadotropins:

Gonadotropins are the hormones that stimulate testicles for the release of sperms and of egg cells from ovaries.

Hysteroscopy:

It is the procedure to observe the uterine cavity bys using an optical device.

Hormones: 

Hormones are chemical molecules that are released from endocrine glands into the blood circulation. They have a wide range of effects; they circulate in the blood, and the act on several parts of the body.

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG):

HCG is a hormone secreted from the placenta during pregnancy. HCG maintains the corpus luteum and sustains a long lasting progesterone secretion. Also, it is the hormone that results in a positive pregnancy test.

Implantation:

It is the attachment of the fertilized egg into the endometrial bed inside the uterus.

In Vitro Fertilization - Embryo Transfer:

It is the process of the joining of the egg cell and the sperm outside the human body in a laboratory environment for fertilization and placing the obtained embryo after fertilization into the uterus.

Infertility:

Failure of a couple in establishing pregnancy after having regular sexual intercourse without contraception for one year or the failure to maintain the pregnancy.

Insemination: 

It is a method applied to establish pregnancy by administering sperms into the uterus.

Laparoscopy: 

It is the procedure of entering into the pelvis from a point below the navel in order to observe the ovaries and the fallopian tubes by using an optical device.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH): 

It is synthesized by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. An LH surge in the middle of the menstrual cycle causes the egg cell to be released.

Morphology:

It refers to the study of the structure and form of sperms.

Motility: 

It is the ratio of the motile sperm count to the total sperm count.

Oligospermia: 

Sperm count in semen (male ejaculation) lower than the normal count.

Oocyte Retrieval: 

It is the collection of eggs from the ovarian follicles. The needle is inserted into the follicle, where the fluid inside and the egg are sucked into the needle. Then, the retrieved eggs are placed in containers containing the culturing fluid.

Oocyte:

Egg

Ovary = Ovarium

It is one of the female reproductive organs. There is a pair of ovaries in the female body. Ovaries produce the estrogen and progesterone hormones; thus, ensuring the development of the egg cell.

Ovarian Failure:

It is the failure of ovaries to respond to the gonadotropic hormone stimulation. It is the absence of follicular tissue either due to genetic factors or occurring after menopause.

Ovulation: 

Ovulation is the release of the mature egg from the surface of the ovary.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): 

There are many cysts on ovaries in this syndrome. The quantities of LH and FSH are disproportional.

Polyspermy:

Polyspermy describes an egg that has been fertilized by more than one sperm.

Progesteron:

It is a hormone started to be synthesized by the corpus luteum for the maintenance of pregnancy. It is produced by the placenta during pregnancy.

Semen Analysis (Spermiogram): 

It is the examination of fresh semen under microscope to determine the sperm count per millimeter, sperm morphology, and sperm motility.

Semen:

It is the name given to the combination of sperms and the ejaculated fluid during orgasm.

Sperm Morphology:

It is the study of the appearance of sperms.

Sperm Motility:

It is the study of the movement ability of sperms.

Sperm washing:

It is the process in which individual sperms are separated from the semen fluid.

Sperm:

It is the male gamete.

Testicles:

Testicles are one of the male reproductive organs found in pairs in the male body. Testicles are held in a bag of skin in the body and they produce sperms and the male reproductive hormone testosterone.

Testosterone:

It is the male reproductive hormone.

Ultrasound (ultrasonography) (USG):

It is the device allowing for the visualization of the internal reproductive organs and the developing fetus.

Unovulation:

Absence of ovulation It is not necessary that unovulation should be accompanied by amenorrhea.Uterus:

The uterus is a muscular organ that ensures the protection and the nourishment of the fetus.

Vagina:

The vagina is the canal connecting the cervix and the uterus to the external genital organs of females.

Varicocele:

It is the enlargement in the testicular vein. It can sometimes be cause of male infertility.

Viability:

It is the study to determine whether sperms are viable.

Viscosity:

The quality or state of being thick and sticky.

Zygote:

The zygote is the beginning state of the embryo early in its development.

Zona pellucida:

It is the membrane surrounding the egg cell. The sperm penetrates this membrane and fertilizes the egg cell. In order to achieve implantation, the embryo should leave this membrane.

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