Causes of Male Infertility

Poor Sperm Quality: Low sperm count is one of the most important causes of male infertility. Likewise, poor sperm motility, i.e., inability to swim through the cervical canal in order to reach the egg or inability to fuse the plasma membrane and penetrate the egg due to poor morphology are some of the main causes. 

Another possibility is the lack of sperm or non-production of sperm which may be caused by ejaculatory duct obstruction.

•Varicocele: It means enlargement of the veins within the lose bag skin that holds the testicles.

•Undescended testicle: As the baby develops in the mother's womb, the testicle moves through the groin towards the loose bag (scrotum) where they will be held. This movement continues throughout the pregnancy period, and both testicles are placed in the loose bag skin short time before the birth. If one or both testicles are not placed in scrotum, this condition is called undescended testicle. For normal sperm production, the testicles should to be at a few degrees below the body temperature.  For this reason, undescended testicles may lead to fertility problems even if they are corrected through surgical methods.


•Hormonal Disorders (problems with hormones secreted from the pituitary, thyroid glands and testicles)

•Disorders of sperm structure, inadequate sperm count and inadequate active sperm count 

•Genetic abnormalities 

•Trauma and TESTICLE Infections (such as epididymis infections and epidemic parotitis in case of testicular involvement)

•Immunological problems (the presence of agents named antibody that destroy the sperms)

•Ejaculatory duct obstruction: Obstructions caused by infectious diseases may lead to infertility due to ejaculatory disorders. 

•Retrograde ejaculation: Retrograde ejaculation occurs when semen is redirected to urethrae. Conditions such as diabetes, previous prostate surgery may lead to retrograde ejaculation.  

•Vasectomy: It is a procedure applied to block sperm from reaching to the semen for the purpose of birth control. It may not be possible to obtain sperm from the semen even if it is reversed through a surgical procedure. 

•Cancer: Cancer, surgical procedures, medication or radiation may cause infertility. 

•Age: As is the case with women, men also have hormonal changes and the reduction in sperm production may cause infertility although it is not very frequent. 

Factors with Adverse Impact on Reproductive Health of Men

•Smoking and frequent alcohol consumption have adverse impact on reproductive health of men.  

•Obesity and the relevant medication are also some of the infertility factors observed among men.  

•Men should avoid wearing tight trousers, slips that hold testicles close to the body and very warm bath/shower as high heat has adverse effects on testicles.

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